Data Sources

Here are links to many of the sources from which we’ve drawn information in discussing the potential benefits of the Shoreline Greenway Trail and increased pedestrian and bicycle connections.

The data is from the most recent studies available conducted by highly reputable organizations in alternative transportation, government, academia, bike/pedestrian advocacy and multi-use trail development. We’ve attempted to be as accurate and up-to-date as possible. Some studies are very recent, others not so; we’ve attempted to use data from older studies only where the findings are generally considered still valid today.



Governors Highway Safety Association, Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Bicycle Safety

University of Connecticut Crash Data Repository

Walking and Cycling in Western Europe and the United States: Trends, Policies and Lessons, Buhler & Pucher, TR News, May-June 2012



American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau

American Lung Association, State of the Air (updated 2017)

Annual Medical Spending Attributable to Obesity, Health Affairs, 2009

Active Commuting and Cardiovascular Disease Risk, American Medical Association CARDIA Study, 2009

Biking to Work: Healthful Until You Hit a Pothole, National Public Radio, 2103

Comprehensive Health Impact Assessment: Clark County (Wash.) Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan, 2010

Connecticut County Health Rankings, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation/University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute, 2016

Connecticut State Health Assessment 2020, Connecticut Department of Public Health

Cost Analysis of the Built Environment: The Case of Bike and Pedestrian Trails in Lincoln, Nebraska, American Journal of Public Health, April 2004

Costs and Benefits of Bicycling Investments in Portland, Oregon, Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 2011

Greater New Haven Community Index, 2013 (updated 2016)

Ludlam Trail (MiamI-Dade County, Florida) Case Study, 2011

Millions of Calories Burned in Denver Bike-Share Program, Rails-to-Trails Conservancy, 2011

Mode and Mood: Does How We Travel Affect How We Feel?, Morris & Guerra, Clemson University, 2015

Moderate Exercise: No Pain, Big Gains, Harvard Health Publications, May 2007

National Institutes of Health, Overweight and Obesity Statistics

Obesity, Exercise and Physical Activity, Connecticut School Health Survey, 2015

Safe Routes to School National Partnership, Health and Obesity

Secret to a Long, Healthy Life: Bike to the Store, National Public Radio, 2011

Step it Up! The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Promote Walking and Walkable Communities

Taking Action on Climate Change 2014 Progress Report, Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection

U.S. Centers for Disease Control, Physical Activity Basics, Benefits & Statistics

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

U.S. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, U.S. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

Walking, Biking and Climate Change, Rails-to-Trails Conservancy, 2007



Alliance for Walking & Biking, 2016 Benchmarking Report

Assessing the Economic and Livability Value of Multi-Use Trails: A Case Study into the Tammany Trace Rail Trail in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, University of Oregon Department of Planning, Public Policy & Management (Hammons), May 2015

Bicycle Paths: Safety Concerns and Property Values, Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority

Bicycle Tourism in Maine: Economic Impacts and Marketing Recommendations, 2001

Business Cycles: Catering to the Bicycling Market, TR News, May-June 2012

The Complete Business Case for Converting Street Parking into Bike Lanes, Citylab/Atlantic Monthly, March 2015

Economic Benefits of Trails and Greenways, Rails-to-Trails Conservancy

The Economic Impact of Bicycling on Wisconsin, 2001

The Economic Impact of the Erie Canalway Trail, Parks & Trails New York

Economic Impact of Trails, National Trails Training Partnership

Estimating Tourism Expenditures for the Burlington Waterfront Path and the Island Line Trail, University of Vermont Transportation Research Center, February 2010

An Executive Summary of a Business Survey Done on the Cape Cod Rail Trail, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management, 1993

From Trail Towns to Transit-Oriented Development, Rails-to-Trails Conservancy

Home Sales Near Two Massachusetts Rail Trails, The Murphys Realtors, 2009

The Impact of the Little Miami Scenic Trail on Single-Family Residential Property Values, University of Cincinnati, 2008

The Impact of Rail Trails on Nearby Residential Property Values: A Case Study of the Minuteman Bikeway and Lexington, Massachusetts, Salem State University, 2007

Multi-use Trails: Benefits and Concerns of Residents and Property Owners, Journal of Urban Planning/Headwaters Economics (Corning, Mowatt & Chancellor), 2012

Benefits of Trails and Greenways, National Park Service, 2008

Naugatuck River Greenway: Path to Revitalization, March 2017

Pinellas Trail (Florida) Community Impact Study, 2001

Property Value/Desirability Effects of Bike Paths Adjacent to Residential Areas, Delaware Center for Transportation/Delaware Department of Transportation, 2006

Small Towns, Vibrant Communities: Bicycling is good business in Maine

Study Shows Biking Customers Spend More, Bike Portland, July 2012

Rail-Trails and Safe Communities, Rails-to-Trails Conservancy, 1998

The Virginia Creeper Trail: An Assessment of User Demographics, Preferences and Economics, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2004



Connecticut Economic Resource Center, Town Profiles

Connecticut Statewide Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan Update, October 2015

New Haven Vision 2025: A Plan for a Sustainable, Healthy and Vibrant City, November 2015

River Council of Governments (RiverCOG), Bike and Pedestrian Planning

South Central Regional Long-Range Transportation Plan, 2015-2040, April 2015 update

South Central Region, Demographic and Socioeconomic Trends, August 2015

South Central Regional Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan, June 2007



Alliance for Walking & Biking, 2016 Benchmarking Report

Benefits of Trails and Greenways, Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection

Connecticut Bicycle and Pedestrian Advisory Board

Connecticut Safe Routes to School

Connecticut Statewide Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation Plan, Connecticut Department of Transportation, 2009

Federal Highway Administration Bicycle and Pedestrian Program

League of American Bicyclists

Like Millennials, More Older Americans Steering Away from Driving, University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (reported by National Public Radio), 2016

Pedestrian & Bicycle Information Center, University of North Carolina

Protected Bicycle Lanes in NYC, NYC Department of Transportation, September 2014

Rails-to-Trails Conservancy

Short-trip Shift Success in Sheboygan, Wisconsin

Strategic Bike/Ped Investment Delivers Results in Marin, Rails-to-Trails Conservancy, 2010

TR News (Transportation Research Board of the National Academies), May-June 2012

Victoria Transport Policy Institute



Bicycle and Pedestrian Advisory Committee of Madison

Bike and Pedestrian Alliance of Clinton

Connecticut Greenways Council

East Coast Greenway

Farmington Canal Heritage Trail

Naugatuck River Greenway

Norwalk River Valley Trail